He would take over from Lael Brainard who is leaving the central bank to join the Biden administration’s National Economic Council.
The agricultural economist joins the institution as a professor after working at Humboldt University.
The award is given each year to an outstanding researcher whose work in a scientific discipline has had an international impact.
He was previously an associate professor at the institution and before that worked at the University of Padua.
He was previously a senior economist at American Farm Bureau Federation and has worked at Clemson University and the University of Kentucky.
Joshua Sherman specializes in econometrics, statistics, antitrust, industrial organization and pricing behavior.
The economist will leave her current appointment at Stanford later this year after four years at the institution.
She takes up the new appointment at the agricultural, environmental and development economics department in July.
The role marks a return to government service for the academic, who previously helped to establish the Office of Research at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
He joins the organization in a research leadership role alongside fellow co-scientific director Amy Finkelstein.