She takes up the new appointment at the agricultural, environmental and development economics department in July.
The role marks a return to government service for the academic, who previously helped to establish the Office of Research at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
He joins the organization in a research leadership role alongside fellow co-scientific director Amy Finkelstein.
Nicolas Vincent will serve as a deputy governor for a two-year term.
The association describes a 16% real-terms reduction in funding for economics research as a “perverse outcome”.
The professor of international business begins the four-year term on July 1.
The six recipients of the accolade will be recognized at the association’s annual meeting in July.
She will leave the institution this summer to become president of Columbia University.
Karen Thompson has also taken the role as interim faculty associate dean, following the departure of Jean-Francois Coget.
She takes up the research leadership post on May 2.